Simultaneous localization and mapping (SLAM) is an essential capability for Unmanned Ground Vehicles (UGVs) travelling in unknown environments where globally accurate position data as GPS is not available. It is an important topic in the autonomous mobile robot research. This paper presents an Adaptive De-centralized Cooperative Vision-based SLAM solution for multiple UGVs, using the Adaptive Covariance Intersection (ACI) supported by a stereo vision sensor. In recent years, SLAM problem has gotten a specific consideration, the most commonly used approaches are the EKF-SLAM algorithm and the FAST-SLAM algorithm. The primary, which requires an accurate process and an observation model, suffers from the linearization problem. The last mentioned is not suitable for real-time implementation. In our work, the Visual SLAM (VSLAM) problem could be solved based on the Smooth Variable Structure Filter (SVSF) is proposed. This new filter is robust and stable to modelling uncertainties making it suitable for UGV localization and mapping problem. This new strategy retains the near optimal performance of the SVSF when applied to an uncertain system, it has the added benefit of presenting a considerable improvement in the robustness of the estimation process. All UGVs will add data features sorted by the ACI that estimate position on the global map. This solution gives, as a result, a large reliable map constructed by a group of UGVs plotted on it. This paper presents a Cooperative SVSF-VSLAM algorithm that contributes to solve the Adaptive Cooperative Vision SLAM problem for multiple UGVs. The algorithm was implemented on three mobile robots Pioneer 3-AT, using stereo vision sensors. Simulation results show eciency and give an advantage to our proposed algorithm, compared to the Cooperative EKF-VSLAM algorithm mainly concerning the noise quality. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.